A calling ...

"We are called to be architects of the future, not its victims."

"Make the world work for 100% of humanity in the shortest possible time through spontaneous cooperation without ecological offense or the disadvantage of anyone."

- Buckminster Fuller

Saturday, April 26, 2014

Data and Statistics: Procedures for organizing, graphing, and interpreting sets of data




Data and Statistics
 

Procedures for organizing, graphing, and interpreting sets of data (numbers and qualities)
 




1.          Sort all numbers in a set from least to greatest, left to right (identify 100% of the numbers)

2.          Find the Sum of all numbers (add all the numbers) and Sample Size (number of numbers)

3.          Find the Range and Mean (Average):





4.          Median (middle number)

·                     Cross off the outer numbers in pairs until there are only one or two numbers left in the center.

·                  If two numbers remain in the center, the median is the average of the two

5.          The Mode is the number that occurs most often.

·                  No mode: a set of data with no repeating numbers

·                  One mode: a set of data with one number which occurs most often

·                  Bimodal: a set of data with two modes




Data Collection and Organization
Before:

Objectives – investigate and answer specific questions

Design Clarity – use graphic organizers

Some common graphic organizers:
·      Organized Lists

·      T-Charts, Venn-Diagrams, and Tables (spreadsheets)

·      Line Plots, Stem and Leaf Charts, Bar Graphs, Line Graphs, Circle Graphs, Scatter Plots, and Histograms


Meaningful, Measureable Categories – Always use Titles, Subtitles, Headings, and Measurement Scales



During:

Consistency – use consistent recording procedures

·      Tallies (counting large numbers of numbers)

·      Subtotal Counts (small numbers of numbers)

After:

Reporting  – summarize what the data is telling us

Data Interpretation (identify clusters or groupings that indicate tendencies or trends, and outliers)



Clusters

·     May indicate clear problems or successes occurring in a population or with a specific individual



Recurring data

·     May indicate clear preferences or dislikes



Trends


·     Might or might not indicate changes in behavior or performance that can be used to forecast or predict future behavior or performance